Apollinaris further taught that the souls of men were propagated by other souls, as well as their bodies.
In 1959, Henry Chadwick argued that all Christian communities were linked by the foundational events which occurred in Jerusalem and continued to be of defining importance in the forging of doctrinal orthodoxy. It can be used in the narrow sense of the question as to how the divine and human are related in the person of Jesus Christ, or alternatively of the overall study of his life and work.
The christological question then arose as to how Jesus Christ could be both divine and human.
Stressing the "monarchy" of God was in Eastern theology a legitimate way of affirming his oneness, also the Father as the unique source of divinity.
It became heretical when pushed to the extremes indicated.
Formal heresy is "the wilful and persistent adherence to an error in matters of faith" on the part of a baptised member of the Catholic Church.
As such it is a grave sin and involves ipso facto excommunication.Other forms of Christianity were viewed as deviant streams of thought and therefore "heterodox", or heretical.This view was dominant until the publication of Walter Bauer's Rechtgläubigkeit und Ketzerei im ältesten Christentum ("Orthodoxy and heresy in ancient Christianity") in 1934.Here "matters of faith" means dogmas which have been proposed by the infallible magisterium of the Church While individual branches of the Protestant Church have also used the concept in proceedings against individuals and groups deemed to be heretical by those branches, the lack of a central doctrinal authority has meant that beliefs can often not be unanimously considered heretical from the Protestant perspective.Likewise the Eastern Orthodox Church officially declares a heresy only at an ecumenical council, and currently accepts only the first seven Ecumenical Councils as ecumenical.The Catholic Church makes a distinction between 'material' and 'formal' heresy.