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The MP3 format soon became associated with controversies surrounding copyright infringement, music piracy, and the file ripping/sharing services MP3and Napster, among others.

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In December 1988, MPEG called for an audio coding standard.

In June 1989, 14 audio coding algorithms were submitted.

The second group was ASPEC, by AT&T, France Telecom, Fraunhofer Gesellschaft, Deutsche and Thomson-Brandt.

The third group was ATAC, by Fujitsu, JVC, NEC and Sony.

The first subgroup for audio was formed by several teams of engineers at CCETT, Matsushita, Philips, AT&T-Bell Labs, Thomson-Brandt, and others. Schroeder at Bell Labs proposed an LPC speech codec, called adaptive predictive coding, that used a psychoacoustic coding algorithm exploiting the masking properties of the human ear. This work added to a variety of reports from authors dating back to Fletcher, and to the work that initially determined critical ratios and critical bandwidths.

The MP3 lossy audio data compression algorithm takes advantage of a perceptual limitation of human hearing called auditory masking. Mayer reported that a tone could be rendered inaudible by another tone of lower frequency. did not immediately influence the mainstream of psychoacoustic codec development. In 1985, Atal and Schroeder presented code-excited linear prediction (CELP), an LPC-based perceptual speech coding algorithm with auditory masking that achieved a significant compression ratio for its time.

MP3 (or mp3) as a file format commonly designates files containing an elementary stream of MPEG-1 audio and video encoded data, without other complexities of the MP3 standard.

In the aspects of MP3 pertaining to audio compression—the aspect of the standard most apparent to end-users (and for which is it best known)—MP3 uses lossy data-compression to encode data using inexact approximations and the partial discarding of data.

It was primarily designed for Digital Audio Broadcasting (digital radio) and digital TV, and its basic principles disclosed to the scientific community by CCETT (France) and IRT (Germany) in Atlanta during an IEEE-ICASSP conference in 1991, together with Radio Canada and CRC Canada during the NAB show (Las Vegas) in 1991.

The implementation of the audio part of this broadcasting system was based on a two chips encoder (one for the subband transform, one for the psychoacoustic model designed by the team of G. The simplicity of the corresponding decoder together with the high audio quality of this codec using for the first time a 48 k Hz sampling frequency, a 20 bits/sample input format (the highest available sampling standard in 1991, compatible with the AES/EBU professional digital input studio standard) were the main reasons to later adopt the characteristics of MUSICAM as the basic features for an advanced digital music compression codec.

The song "Tom's Diner" by Suzanne Vega was the first song used by Karlheinz Brandenburg to develop the MP3.

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