Despite brief intermissions such as these by Safavid Iran's neighboring rivals, the land of what is today Azerbaijan remained under Iranian rule from the earliest advent of the Safavids up to the course of the 19th century.After the Safavids, the area was ruled by the Iranian Afsharid dynasty. 1736–1747), many of his former subjects capitalized on the eruption of instability.
In the first half of the 7th century, Caucasian Albania, as a vassal of the Sasanians, came under nominal Muslim rule due to the Muslim conquest of Persia.
The Umayyad Caliphate repulsed both the Sasanians and Byzantines from Transcaucasia and turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state after Christian resistance led by King Javanshir, was suppressed in 667.
Azerbaijan has a high level of human development that ranks on par with most Eastern European countries.
The original etymology of this name is thought to have its roots in the once-dominant Zoroastrianism.
Following Timur's death, two independent and rival states emerged: Kara Koyunlu and Aq Qoyunlu.
The Shirvanshahs returned, maintaining a high degree of autonomy as local rulers and vassals from 861, for numerous centuries to come.
In 1501, the Safavid dynasty of Iran subdued the Shirvanshahs, and gained its possessions.
In the course of the next century, the Safavids converted the formerly Sunni population to Shia Islam, The Safavids allowed the Shirvanshahs to remain in power, under Safavid suzerainty, until 1538, when Safavid king Tahmasp I (r.
The power vacuum left by the decline of the Abbasid Caliphate was filled by numerous local dynasties such as the Sallarids, Sajids, and Shaddadids.
At the beginning of the 11th century, the territory was gradually seized by waves of Oghuz Turks from Central Asia.
In the Avesta's Frawardin Yasht ("Hymn to the Guardian Angels"), there is a mention of âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide, which literally translates from Avestan as "we worship the fravashi of the holy Atropatene." The Greek name was mentioned by Diodorus Siculus and Strabo.