The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State.Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars.Byzantine domestic policies changed after Basil's death and a series of unsuccessful rebellions broke out, the largest being led by Peter Delyan.
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Asparukh attacked Byzantine territories in Moesia and conquered the Slavic tribes there in 680.
After the conquest, Basil II prevented revolts by retaining the rule of local nobility, integrating them in Byzantine bureaucracy and aristocracy, and relieving their lands of the obligation to pay taxes in gold, allowing tax in kind instead.
They convened the Constantinople Conference in 1876, but their decisions were rejected by the Ottomans.
This allowed the Russian Empire to seek a military solution without risking confrontation with other Great Powers, as had happened in the Crimean War.
The Austrians first backed an uprising in Tarnovo in 1598, then a second one in 1686, the Chiprovtsi Uprising in 1688 and finally Karposh's Rebellion in 1689.
It restored national consciousness and provided an ideological basis for the liberation struggle, resulting in the 1876 April Uprising.
Bulgaria then transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy.
Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation.
The population of seven million lives mainly in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces. Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, and the Council of Europe; it is a founding state of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and has taken a seat on the UN Security Council three times.
Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and mostly relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture.
With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country.