Like their 17th century predecessors, early 20th cooking texts warn against rare meat. Tender cuts are best heatedrapidly and just to the point of their juices are in full flow.
Joannes de Mediolano Regimen Sanitatis Salerni sig. 264 Let the egge be newe, and roste hym reare.1607 J. Some diners whoformerly consumed their beef on the raw side began ordering "well done" to be safe.
USA government stepped in to regulate "safe" cooking temperatures.
This early reference notes this stage is unwholesome [Markam]. Black and blue(aka"Pittsburgh style" steak surfaces in print in the 1970s. The ideal method forcooking meat would therefore minimize moisture loss and compacting of the meat fiers, while maximizing the conversion oftough connective-tissue colllagen to fluid gelatin.
Late 19th century food scientists examined meat doneness, offering temperature/time recommendations according to type of meat,cut, and method of cooking. Oxford English Dictionary RAREEtymology: Originally a variant of rear adj.1As a result of the lowering influence of r on preceding vowels in southern varieties of English, rear remained homophonous with rare adj.1 at least as late as the 17thcent. This gave rise to the variant rare, which retained the early modern pronunciation in standard English (compare thecurrent pronunciation of e.g. Unfortunately, these two aims conflict with each other... The method must be tailored to the meat's toughness.
1861), although it was current in English writing from the 18th cent. for roasts and from 95 to 99 degrees for braised meat."---Experimental Cookery, Bell Lowe [John Wiley & Sons: New York] 1932 (p.
Formerly often regarded as an Americanism (see quot. The meat may be cooked until it reaches a temperature far above 71 degrees C., often from 80 to 85 degrees C.
Ancient Greeks and Roman physicians "prescribed" cooking methods by humoral theory.
Meats were cooked with one general goal: make them edible.
Many restaurants have placed warnings/disclaimers on menus with regardsto the risks involved with meat served at the lower end of the cooking spectrum.